Innovative Methods for Managing Flea Beetles in CanolaAuthor(s): Juliana J. Soroka and Bob Elliott
Summary: Flea beetles are among the most chronic and economically damaging insect pests of canola in western Canada. They are a challenge to manage because they are difficult to forecast and can cause significant crop losses very quickly. Several cultural practices, including reduced tillage and the use of large-sized seed with high vigour, can lessen the impact of flea beetle feeding, but insecticide-coated seed dressings remain the primary method of control.
Citation: Soroka, Juliana J. and Elliott, Bob. Innovative Methods for Managing Flea Beetles in Canola. Prairie Soils and Crops 4:1-7. [http://www.prairiesoilsandcrops.ca]
Management Practices for Wheat Midge, Sitodiplosis Mosellana (Géhin)Author(s): Bob Elliott, Owen Olfert, and Scott Hartley
Summary: Wheat midge is an established insect pest in most wheat-producing regions of the world. It was first detected in western Canada in the early 1900’s. However, the first major outbreak in Saskatchewan was not recorded until 1983. Since then, wheat midge populations have spread and now infest a large portion of the wheat-producing area of the prairies. Damage caused by larval feeding on kernels can reduce crop yields and lower the grade of harvested grain.
Citation: Elliott, Bob, Olfert, Owen, and Hartley, Scott. Management practices for wheat midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin). Prairie Soils and Crops 4: 8-13. [http://www.prairiesoilsandcrops.ca]
Biology and Integrated Management of the Cabbage Seedpod Weevil in Prairie Canola CropsAuthor(s): Lloyd M. Dosdall and Héctor A. Cárcamo
Summary: The economic importance of the cabbage seedpod weevil, Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham), increased rapidly in the prairies of western Canada following its discovery in canola near Lethbridge in 1995. Since 1999 outbreaks have occurred almost annually over thousands of hectares of cropland, necessitating applications of vast quantities of chemical insecticide. Both larvae and adults can damage the crop, with larvae developing within pods and feeding on seeds and adults feeding through pod pericarp late in the season to further reduce yield and quality.
Citation: Dosdall, Lloyd M. and Cárcamo,Héctor A. Biology and Integrated Management of the Cabbage Seedpod Weevil in Prairie Canola Crops. Prairie Soils and Crops 4:14-23. [http://www.prairiesoilsandcrops.ca]
Coping with Root Maggots in Prairie Canola CropsAuthor(s): Juliana J. Soroka and Lloyd M. Dosdall
Summary: Crucifer root-feeding maggots occur in field Brassica crops across the prairies, causing the greatest damage to canola fields in central and northern Alberta. No chemical options are available for their control in canola. Seed treatments currently utilized for flea beetle control are not efficacious against root maggots, and flies emerge over extended periods, making application of insecticide sprays impractical. Biological and cultural practices are the primary methods of root maggot management in canola.
Citation: Soroka, Juliana J. and Dosdall, Lloyd M. Coping with Root Maggots in Prairie Canola Crops. Prairie Soils and Crops 4:24-31. [http://www.prairiesoilsandcrops.ca]
The Cereal Leaf Beetle: Biology, Distribution and Prospects for ControlAuthor(s): S.V. Kher1, L.M. Dosdall, and H.A. Cárcamo
Summary: The cereal leaf beetle is an invasive Eurasian pest of cereals including wheat, oats and barley recently discovered in western Canada. It has been established in North America at least since 1962, and since then it has expanded its geographical range significantly. Management approaches include quarantine, insecticides, cultural control, plant resistance, and biological control.
Citation: Kher1, S. V., Dosdall, L. M., and Cárcamo, H. A. The Cereal Leaf Beetle: Biology, Distribution and Prospects for Control. Prairie Soils and Crops 4:32-41. [http://www.prairiesoilsandcrops.ca]
Biology and Management of Lygus in CanolaAuthor(s): Jennifer Otani and Héctor Cárcamo
Summary: Lygus (Hemiptera: Miridae) are unpredictable pests in canola. This stems from their ability to produce multiple generations, having up to six species forming a “complex”, and a wide host plant range combined with highly variable canola growing regions in Canada. The number of generations and synchrony of Lygus adults and nymphs with canola varies across the growing regions of the Canadian prairies. The economic threshold for Lygus in conventional canola is well established for southern Manitoba.
Citation: Otani, Jennifer and Cárcamo, Héctor. Biology and management of Lygus in canola. Prairie Soils and Crops 4:42-53. [http://www.prairiesoilsandcrops.ca]
Integrating the Building Blocks of Agronomy & Biocontrol into an IPM Strategy for Wheat Stem SawflyAuthor(s): Brian L. Beres, et. al.
Summary: The wheat stem sawfly(Cephus cinctus Norton [Hymenoptera: Cephidae]) is a serious threat to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and other cereal grains in the northern Great Plains. Insecticides have proven ineffective for sawfly control and can be detrimental to beneficial insects. The management of wheat stem sawfly, therefore, requires the integration of host plant resistance, agronomic and biological control strategies.
Citation: Beres, Brian L., Cárcamo, Héctor A., Weaver, David K., Dosdall, Lloyd M., Evenden, Maya L., Hill, Bernard D., McKenzie, Ross H., Yang, Rong-Cai and Spaner, Dean M. Integrating the building blocks of agronomy and biocontrol into an IPM strategy for wheat stem sawfly. Prairie Soils and Crops 4:54-65. [http://www.prairiesoilsandcrops.ca]
The Diamondback Moth in Canola and Mustard: Current Pest Status and Future ProspectsAuthor(s): Lloyd M. Dosdall, Julie J. Soroka and Owen Olfert
Summary: Populations of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), routinely infest crops of canola (Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L.) and mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. and Sinapis alba L.) in the western Canadian prairies. In most years the insect causes minor economic damage, but in some years populations reach outbreak densities and substantial crop losses occur. The insect may overwinter in the prairies, but not frequently or in large numbers, and instead migrates northward from infested regions in the southern or western U.S.A. or northern Mexico on wind currents.
Citation: Dosdall, Lloyd M., Soroka, Julie J. and Olfert, Owen. The Diamondback Moth in Canola and Mustard: Current Pest Status and Future Prospects. Prairie Soils and Crops 4:66-76. [http://www.prairiesoilsandcrops.ca]
Managing the Pea Leaf Weevil in Field PeasAuthor(s): Héctor Cárcamo and Meghan Vankosky
Summary: The pea leaf weevil is one of the few insect pests of field peas in southern Alberta and southwest Saskatchewan. Adults cause distinctive notching on seedlings which generally does not affect yield. Larval feeding on nitrogen-fixing root nodules may reduce yield if soil is nitrogen deficient. Only field peas and faba beans are at risk of damage. Other crops in the bean family may be fed on by adults but do not suffer significant damage from larvae.
Citation: Cárcamo, Héctor and Vankosky, Meghan. Managing the Pea Leaf Weevil in Field Peas. Prairie Soils and Crops. 4:77-85. [http://www.prairiesoilsandcrops.ca]
Rust Diseases in CanadaAuthor(s): Tom Fetch, et. al.
Summary: Rust diseases are among the most dangerous that attack food crops, and historically have caused devastating yield losses worldwide. Rust pathogens produce prodigious amounts of spores in a short period of time, which are rapidly wind-dispersed over a large area for subsequent re-infection of the crop. This characteristic of rust diseases allows for several cycles of infection in a short period of time during the growing season and over a large geographical area, and can cause total yield losses under epidemic conditions.
Citation: Fetch, Tom, McCallum, Brent, Menzies, Jim, Rashid, Khalid and Tenuta, Albert. Rust diseases in Canada. Prairie Soils and Crops 4:86-96. [http://www.prairiesoilsandcrops.ca]
Strategies for Management of Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) in CerealsAuthor(s): J. Gilbert and A. Tekauz
Summary: Individual management options are unlikely to fully protect crops from FHB, therefore multiple strategies (varietal resistance, rotation, and fungicide application) provide the best means of maintaining yield potential, reducing the risk of mycotoxin contamination, protecting quality, and enhancing producer returns.
Citation: Gilbert, J. and Tekauz, A. Strategies for management of fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereals. Prairie Soils and Crops 4:97-104. [http://www.prairiesoilsandcrops.ca]
Managing Sclerotinia in Oilseed and Pulse CropsAuthor(s): T.K. Turkington, H.R. Kutcher, D. McLaren and K.Y. Rashid
Summary: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a fungal pathogen that infects more than 400 plant species in more than 60 families, causing significant economic losses in many crops in Canada and worldwide. Sclerotinia diseases are among the most important constraints to successful production of oilseed and pulse crops in the prairie region of western Canada. Although significant sclerotinia levels can develop in many broadleaf crops, levels can vary widely among fields and years.
Citation: Turkington, T.K, Kutcher, H.R., McLaren, D. and Rashid, K.Y. Managing Sclerotinia in Oilseed and Pulse Crops. Prairie Soils and Crops 4:105-113. [http://www.prairiesoilsandcrops.ca]
Progress Towards the Sustainable Management of Clubroot (Plasmodiophora Brassicae) of Canola on the Canadian PrairiesAuthor(s): Stephen E. Strelkov, et. al.
Summary: Clubroot, caused by the obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin, has recently emerged as an important disease of canola (Brassica napus) in central Alberta. Disease development is characterized by the formation of large galls on the roots of affected plants, which hinder water and nutrient uptake and lead to yield and quality losses. Over 560 clubroot infested fields have now been confirmed in the province, and while most cases of the disease are still found in central Alberta, clubroot appears to be spreading into southern counties.
Citation: Strelkov, Stephen E., Hwang, Sheau-Fang, Howard, Ronald J., Hartman, Murray and Turkington, T. Kelly. Progress towards the Sustainable Management of Clubroot [Plasmodiophora brassicae] of Canola on the Canadian Prairies. Prairie Soils and Crops 4:114-121. [http://www.prairiesoilsandcrops.ca]
Best Management Practices for Blackleg Disease of CanolaAuthor(s): H.R. Kutcher, W.G.D. Fernando, T.K. Turkington and D.L. McLaren
Summary: Blackleg disease of canola in western Canada has been effectively managed for the past 20 years through a combination of resistant varieties, adequate crop rotation intervals and good agronomics. Increased canola production in western Canada, in large measure through more frequent cropping in the rotation, has increased the risk that resistance to blackleg in current varieties may be defeated. Loss of resistance in Canada and in other countries has been reported in varieties dependent on single resistance genes, indicating selection pressure for virulent races of the pathogen.
Citation: Kutcher, H.R., Fernando, W.G.D., Turkington, T.K. and McLaren, D.L. Best Management Practices for Blackleg Disease of Canola. Prairie Soils and Crops 4:122-134. [http://www.prairiesoilsandcrops.ca]
Managing the Ascochyta Blight Complex on Field Peas in Western CanadaAuthor(s): B.D. Gossen, S.F. Hwang, R.L. Conner and K.F. Chang
Summary: Ascochyta blight, caused primarily by Ascochyta pinodes (sexual form Mycosphaerella pinodes) is an important disease of field pea in western Canada. It occurs in almost everyfield each year, and is capable of causing substantial loss in seed yield when epidemics develop early. There are differences in susceptibility among field pea lines, but lines also respond differently to the amount of disease that they can tolerate before substantial yield loss occurs.
Citation: Gossen, B. D., Hwang, S. F., Conner, R. L. and Chang, K. F. Managing the ascochyta blight complex on field pea in western Canada. Prairie Soils and Crops 4:135-141. [http://www.prairiesoilsandcrops.ca]
Foliar Diseases of Barley: Don't Rely on a Single Strategy From the Disease Management ToolboxAuthor(s): T.K. Turkington, A. Tekauz, K. Xi and H.R. Kutcher
Summary: One of the main constraints to successful barley production results from foliar diseases, which destroy green leaf area and thus restrict the barley plant’s ability to set yield and fill grain. Although a range of strategies are available to control foliar and other cereal diseases, rarely does the use of a single “silver bullet” solution provide complete protection. The main barley foliar diseases in western Canada are scald, (Rhynchosporium secalis), netted (Drechslera teres (Sacc.) Shoemaker) and spotted (Drechslera teres f. maculata Smedeg.) forms of net blotch, and spot blotch (Cochliobolus sativus (Ito & Kuribayashi) Drechs. ex Dastur).
Citation: Turkington, T.K., Tekauz, A., Xi, K. and Kutcher, H.R. Foliar diseases of barley: Don't rely on a Single Strategy from the Disease Management Toolbox. Prairie Soils and Crops 4:142-150. [http://www.prairiesoilsandcrops.ca]
Root and Crown Rot of WheatAuthor(s): M.R. Fernandez and R.L. Conner
Summary: Root and crown rot are among the most widespread and damaging diseases of cereal crops, including common (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum [T. turgidum L. ssp. durum (Desf.) Husn.] wheat, on the Canadian Prairies. Due to the drier growing conditions experienced in the western Prairies over the last decade, these diseases have been increasing in incidence and severity, especially in durum wheat.
Citation: Fernandez, M.R. and Conner, R.L. Root and Crown Rot of Wheat. Prairie Soils and Crops 4:151-157. [http://www.prairiesoilsandcrops.ca]
Black Point and Smudge in WheatAuthor(s): M.R. Fernandez and R.L. Conner
Summary: There are various types of discolouration that can affect common (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum [T. turgidum L. ssp. durum (Desf.) Husn.] wheat kernels grown on the Canadian Prairies. Black point and dark smudge, mostly associated with Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl., and Cochliobolus sativus (Ito & Kurib.) Drechs. ex Dast. [anamorph Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc.) Shoemaker] are common discolourations of cereal seed, which occur in most regions where these crop species are grown.
Citation: Fernandez, M.R. and Conner, R.L. Black Point and Smudge in Wheat. Prairie Soils and Crops 4:158-164. [http://www.prairiesoilsandcrops.ca]